- Stress (stimulus)
- Exercise / Physical Activity
- Adaptation (response)
- Adaptation response will begin to slow if the exact same stimulus is continued for a prolonged period of time.
- Adaptation is complete after limited time span
- Continued stimulus no longer elicits adaptation
Other Examples (epidermis):
- Sun: sunburn or increase melanin
- Friction: blister / abrasion or callus
- Training effects are specific to the muscle groups used during training and the type of training program implemented (Fox 1975).
- Training specifically for the movement pattern, speed, joint position, speed, and type of contraction produces improvement, specifically in those movement parameters (Kreighbaum 1996).
- Specific sport or activity yields greatest improvements
- Supplement activity or sports training with resistance, cardiovascular, plyometrics, flexibility exercises
- Utilize progression and periodization techniques
- Also see Adaptation Criteria.
- Adaptation is specific to :
- Speed of contraction
- power training examples
- Metabolic pathways utilized
- Time exercising
- Recovery between bouts or work intervals
- Number of reps
- Number of exercises and sets
Fox E, McKenzie D, Cohen K. (1975). Specificity of training: metabolic and circulatory responses. Med Sci Sports, 7(1):83.
Kreighbaum, E., Barthels KM (1996). Biomechanics; A Qualitative Approach for Studying Human Movement, Allyn & Bacon, 4.
- Transfer of learning between various skills and exercise routines can occur if the main elements underlying different skills or situations surrounding performance are identical and similar in nature.
- Eg: Gymnastic training aimed at practicing complex exercise maneuvers complement (positively transfer) to the springboard diving.
- As the degree of similarity between stimuli and responses decline, conflicting consequences may be experienced.
- Transition from gymnastic to diving may not likely transfer because of the dissimilarity between diving and gymnastic somersaulting techniques.
Slobounov SM (2008). Injuries in Athletics, Causes and Consequences, Springer, 25-43
- Perform every weight training exercise through a full range of motion
- Recommended by leading authorities
- Develops strength throughout full range of motion
- Maintains flexibility (Morton 2011, Souza 2013)
- necessary for ideal mechanics, function, and joint integrity
- Joint adapts to full extension and flexion
- Less susceptible to injury at extremes after adaptation
- Unless range of motion will never be used
- Consider unintentional or accidental range of motion in real world situations
- Conditions stabilizing muscles
- Example: Supraspinatus Weakness
- Full range of motion varies from person to person.
- For elderly adults, perform the maximum range of motion that does not elicit pain or discomfort (ACSM 1995)
American College of Sports Medicine (1995). Principles of Exercise Prescription, William & Wilkins, 5.
Morton SK, Whitehead JR, Brinkert RH, Caine DJ (2011). Resistance training vs. static stretching: effects on flexibility and strength. J Strength Cond Res. 25(12):3391-8.
Slobounov SM (2008). Injuries in Athletics, Causes and Consequences, Springer, 25-43.
Souza AC, Bentes CM, de Salles BF, Reis VM, Alves JV, Miranda H, Novaes Jda S (2013). Influence of inter-set stretching on strength, flexibility and hormonal adaptations. J Hum Kinet. 36:127-35.