|Fitness Component||Residual Effect (days)||Characteristics|
|Speed (maximal)||5 ±3||Neuromuscular and motor control, creatine phosphate recovery|
|Strength Endurance||15 ±5||Slow twitch fiber hypertrophy, aerobic/anaerobic enzyme activity, local blood circulation, lactate tolerance|
|Anaerobic Glycolytic Endurance||18 ±4||Anaerobic enzyme activity, lactate accumulation rate, buffering capacity, glycogen storage|
|Aerobic endurance||30 ±5||Aerobic enzymes activity, mitochondria number, glycogen storage, muscle capillaries, fat oxidation rate|
|Strength (maximal)||30 ±5||Neural control, muscular hypertrophy|
Residual Training Effect is the retention of changes in the body state and motor abilities after the cessation of training beyond a certain time period. After training cessation, the training effect of various fitness components decreases gradually at varying rates. The rate of detraining appears to be only slightly less in highly trained athletes as compared to recently trained subjects.
To reduce potential detraining in elite athletes, Soviet coaches proposed consecutive rather than simultaneous development of sport-specific abilities (Bondarchuk 1981, Issurin & Kaverin 1985). This allows for the effective design of a sports conditioning program to sequence related fitness components taking into account of the relevant specific training residuals.
|< 5 ±3 days|
This Block Composition Concept for periodization also allows for highly-focused training workloads required to produce sufficient stimulation for the development of required functional properties and the acquisition of skills/motor abilities in elite athletes, in contrast to traditional periodization methods.
Bondarchuk AP (1981). The physical preparation designing in power disciplines of track and field. Kiev: Health Publisher (Zdorovie, Russian).
Counsilman BE, Counsilman J (1991). The residual effects of training. Journal of Swimming Research, 7, 5-12.
Issurin V (2010). New horizons for the methodology and physiology of training periodization. Sports Med. 40: 189-206.
Issurin V, Kaverin V (1985). Planning and design of annual preparation cycle in canoeing. In 'Grebnoj Sport" (Rowing, Canoeing, Kayaking), Ph.S.; Moscow, 25-29.
Issurin V, Lustig G (2004). Klassification, Dauer und praktische Komponenten der Resteffekte von Training. Leistungsport. 34, 55-59.
Slobounov SM (2008). Injuries in Athletics, Causes and Consequences, Springer, 25-43